HomeEthereumEF-Supported Groups: Analysis & Improvement Roundup

EF-Supported Groups: Analysis & Improvement Roundup

All of us have loads to be pleased about this vacation season, from the primary birthday of the beacon chain, to the profitable upgrades over the previous yr and the unimaginable progress throughout all the Ethereum ecosystem.

As a extremely productive yr attracts to an in depth, there are just a few remaining items to ship within the type of updates from many (15+!!) EF-supported groups which are all the time working to enhance the community. And there’s a lot of substantive materials right here, so take a while to kind via the desk of contents, and dig in!

As all the time, this roundup collection focuses on EF-supported groups whose members are working to develop and enhance Ethereum as an entire. Included on this version are updates from many groups highlighted in the earlier report, and different new and rotating teams.

Get pleasure from! 🦄

Consensus R&D (aka EF Analysis Crew)

Authored by Hsiao-Wei Wang

Within the second half of this yr, the milestones in Ethereum consensus R&D included:

To align with The Nice Renaming, we shifted elements to “Consensus Layer” from “Eth2” for clearer communication in the long run.

In early 2022, our group will give attention to serving to to ship the “The Merge”, probably the most vital consensus protocol improve ever. Thankfully, we now have nice help from consumer groups, and others in the neighborhood working to make this a actuality! Within the meantime, we can be persevering with our analysis work on information availability, L1 scaling, and the options of the “clear up” fork after The Merge.

Ecosystem Assist Program

Authored by ESP Crew

We printed our Q2 Allocation Replace with grants totalling $7,794,000 for the quarter – and Q3 is coming quickly! You may also try current month-to-month roundups right here and right here for extra detailed progress updates from just a few of our fabulous grantees.

Behind the scenes, we’re engaged on a serious web site overhaul which ought to make it simpler than ever to grasp ESP’s mission and priorities, and for eligible builders to use for funding or different help. We are able to’t wait to launch the brand new website in early 2022!


Authored by Sam Richards

To make our work extra accessible and to foster extra group collaboration, our group publishes an summary of our quarterly roadmap targets. See our This autumn product roadmap right here.

Pleased holidays to all from the ethereum.org group 😀🎄 As all the time, our imaginative and prescient with ethereum.org is to create one of the best portal for Ethereum’s rising group and to function the entrance door to Ethereum for hundreds of thousands of recent guests every month.

Content material updates

Ethereum strikes quick! In addition to updating lots of of pages to make sure our content material stays updated and correct, we’ve additionally launched a bunch of recent content material:

Ethereum.org exists because of lots of of content material and code contributors from the group. In Q3/This autumn, we put emphasis on methods to extend contributions and acknowledge the group for the work they have been doing:

Some stats (Aug – Dec)

  • Our GitHub contributors elevated by 57%, from 396 to 621 😲
  • Our Discord group practically doubled, from 6,500 to 12,200 members 🎉
  • We’ve hosted two group calls and began office-hours for contributors
  • We added 3 new group guides (trusted members answering questions and moderating chat) 😎
  • We launched tiered POAPs to gamify contributions for content material, code, and translations

Translation Program

Since hiring our new Translation Lead in July, the Translation Program has actually ramped up!

Some stats:

  • Between July and November, the group collectively translated 1,373,046 phrases for ethereum.org, over 10x the quantity of this identical interval final yr! To place this in perspective, that is equal to translating everything of just about 20 books 📚!
  • We’ve obtained translation help from over 2,500 group contributors 🤯
  • We now have 37 languages stay on ethereum.org 🌍
  • We launched an initiative to raised acknowledge our translators, together with a leaderboard and translator certificates!

CLR funding

We’re supporting a clr.fund spherical on Layer 2! After over 6 months of contributing to clr.fund’s quadratic funding stack, we’ve merged our adjustments to the upstream repo, which provides L2 community help and a wide range of internet app enhancements.

clr.fund plans to deploy a funding spherical on Arbitrum One geared in the direction of the staking ecosystem in January, and the EF is happy to supply matching funds to the spherical. We hope you take part! Keep tuned for particulars. Yay public items!

We’ve been constructing on the shoulders of giants. Thanks to the clr.fund group, the MACI group & clr.fund’s group of contributors who proceed to push improvements within the ZKP & quadratic funding house.

What’s subsequent?

  • making a studying hub to permit non-technical customers to develop into proficient Ethereum customers
  • constructing further assets on operating nodes and staking to enhance accessibility
  • additional automating our translation pipeline to launch translated content material out sooner
  • increasing the Translation Program past ethereum.org
  • updating content material to transition away from the Eth2 terminology because the merge approaches

How does that sound?

We respect suggestions on our roadmap. Our guiding rules are primarily based on delivering probably the most worth within the shortest time, so if there’s one thing you suppose we should always work on, please tell us! We welcome concepts and contributions from anybody in the neighborhood.

Extra on contributing


Authored by Alex Beregszaszi

We now have created a group web site to offer a transparent explainer and to comprehensively listing our present and previous work.

It’s simple to inform from the next headers that within the second half of the yr the group principally centered on the EVM. It’s additionally vital to say that we now have teamed up with the Geth Crew to enhance the efficiency of the EVM interpreter.

EVM Object Format (EOF)

Step one in the direction of this, EIP-3541, went stay with London and we now have carried out a survey throughout many testnets and EVM chains to discover a becoming prefix for EOF.

Continued clarifications have been made to EIP-3540 (together with the chosen prefix), and we additionally proposed additional work constructing on prime of it:

  • EIP-3670 to introduce code validation at deploy time
  • EIP-3690 to switch JUMPDEST opcodes with a JUMPDEST-table
  • EIP-4200 to introduce two new opcodes, RJUMP and RJUMPI, facilitating static jumps

Throughout October we introduced EOF at Liscon (slides right here, however the recording shouldn’t be accessible) and on the Ethereum Meetup in Berlin (slides, recording).

Different EIPs

EIP-2681 (Restrict account nonce to 2^64-1)

One in all our outdated proposals, EIP-2681, was accepted throughout ACD#120. It codifies a restriction, which was already (partially) carried out in apply in most purchasers. After acceptance we now have prolonged the Ethereum State Exams suite and adjusted the geth implementation.

EIP-3855 (PUSH0 instruction)

EIP-3855 proposes to introduce a PUSH0 instruction which pushes 0 onto the stack. This can be a often used characteristic, principally completed as we speak through inefficient or repurposed directions.

Our evaluation discovered that substantial assets may have been saved with this opcode:

To place the “waste” into perspective, throughout current accounts 340,557,331 bytes are wasted on PUSH1 00 directions, which suggests 68,111,466,200 gasoline was spent to deploy them.

EIP-3860 (Restrict and meter initcode)

EIP-3860 is a proposal to set a boundary and introduce metering for initcode. This may permit for extra optimised evaluation and execution, as a result of implementations would want to cope with much less unknowns.


As a collaboration with the Geth Crew, we began to work on measuring and bettering the efficiency of the EVM interpreter in geth.

On the evaluation facet two experiences are noteworthy:

  • Geth vs evmone compares the pace of Geth and evmone utilizing the benchmarking suite in evmone.
  • Geth & Go compiler explores the impact of the Go compiler model on the pace of geth.

Primarily based on these preliminary outcomes, we now have appeared into profiling geth, and at last contributing a number of enhancements to the codebase, most of which has been already merged. A non-comprehensive listing of related PRs: 23952, 23970, 23974, 23977, 24017, 24026, 24031, 24120.

Observe this hyperlink to see each PR. We plan to proceed this work within the subsequent quarter.


Two bugfix releases of evmone have been made: 0.8.1 and 0.8.2.


The group additionally maintains a C++ ethash/keccak256 library, which is utilized by evmone and Silkworm.

The newest 0.8.0 launch introduces a brand new methodology for verifying the ultimate Ethash hashes in opposition to the block issue. That is each a usability and pace enchancment. The tactic has been posted on Ethresear.ch.

Moreover, ProgPoW has been deprecated within the library.


The group additionally participated within the Wasm in Web3 convention throughout September. We gave two displays:

  • Fizzy — A deterministic interpreter (slides) gave a complete overview of what Fizzy is, the way it compares to different engines, and likewise explains the reasoning behind lots of the design decisions we made.
  • Bizarre quirks whereas testing WebAssembly exhibits a wide variety of edge circumstances we now have encountered whereas creating Fizzy. The discuss additionally provides some potential options and explainers for these edge circumstances, in addition to how we now have prolonged the official WebAssembly check suite to cowl them.

Formal Verification

Authored by Leo Alt

Within the second half of the yr the FV group continued to give attention to our current instruments:


  • We lastly launched Act 0.1! You possibly can learn the wonderful tutorial at https://fv.ethereum.org/2021/08/31/act-0.1/ to verify what’s potential presently and the best way to use it.
  • We’re presently refactoring error dealing with to enhance usability.



  • Observe the balances of contracts exactly, together with msg.worth despatched to and from the analyzed contracts.
  • Additionally help the low-level name perform as an unsafe exterior name.
  • Enhance counterexamples by reporting block.*, msg.* and tx.* values which are vital for failed verification targets.
  • Report contract and reentrancy inductive invariants again to the consumer.


Authored by Felix Lange

Within the second half of 2021, we printed 9 geth releases. As ordinary, our time has been break up between EIP overview/implementation, consumer optimization/upkeep and reviewing code adjustments proposed by the group.

In July, the London onerous fork, which included EIP-1559, was activated. The brand new gasoline pricing scheme outlined by this EIP required many adjustments throughout all subsystems of geth. We’re nonetheless discovering and fixing corner-case points associated to EIP-1559 now, six months after its introduction.

Two safety vulnerabilities have been found up to now six months. For each of them, we adopted our safety advisory coverage: we instantly assigned a CVE quantity to the problem and printed a hotfix launch. Technical particulars in regards to the vulnerability have been printed 6-8 weeks later.

Within the final quarter of 2021, our work has principally shifted in the direction of implementation and testing of The Merge. We’re on monitor to show geth into the ‘execution layer consumer’ of the merged execution+consensus (fmr. “eth1+eth2”) layers. In preparation for The Merge, we now have re-written a lot of the sync code to function underneath management of the consensus layer. Geth additionally participates in Merge testnets.

Moreover, the geth group has been engaged on a number of long-term tasks, similar to implementation of Verkle Timber, a beacon chain mild consumer, and a brand new database storage scheme for the Ethereum state.

Javascript Crew

Authored by Holger Drewes

Within the final two quarters of 2021, preparations for “the massive transitions” on the Ethereum community was a robust focus of our work. We participated within the Merge Interop in Greece and launched the primary Merge-testnet prepared variations of our consumer, VM and associated libraries (see e.g. the EthereumJS consumer v0.2 launch). We additionally began on an thrilling experiment with the Go-Ethereum Verkle/Stateless group to natively check stateless block execution primarily based on a verkle proof served alongside a modified block header through devp2p inside our consumer. In case you are you’ll be able to see the next monitoring problem to observe our progress.

A bit extra relevant for the top consumer proper now: the help of our libraries for the rising L2 networks like Polygon, Arbitrum or Optimism has been improved. These and another networks can now immediately be referenced to e.g. ship a transaction to a sure L2 community. See e.g. the Frequent v2.6.0 launch for the newest Optimism L2 community integration.

And final however not least: there’s a VM ArrowGlacier launch accessible and on the Ethers.js entrance. Richard has simply posted an thrilling overview on the upcoming Ethers.js v6 library adjustments and updates on his weblog.

Privateness & Scaling Explorations

Authored by Thore Hildebrandt

The Privateness & Scaling Explorations group works to bridge the hole between cutting-edge analysis in zero-knowledge proofs, and software growth on Ethereum.


The purpose of zkEVM is to run sensible contracts in a zk-rollup. Sadly, the EVM was not designed to run in a zk circuit which makes it a problem. We wish to implement the complete set of EVM opcodes immediately into the zk circuits so a wise contract operating on L1 may be deployed to L2 with minimal modifications. This can permit full compatibility with current tooling and allow us to leverage information of the EVM that the ecosystem has constructed up over the previous years. We’re making good progress on specification of the opcodes and implementation of the circuits, and we now have early benchmarks and an vital purpose going ahead to deliver prover time down.


ZKOPRU (zk-optimistic-rollup) is a layer-2 scaling resolution for personal transactions utilizing zk-SNARK and optimistic rollup. It helps personal transfers and personal atomic swaps inside the layer-2 community between ETH, ERC20 and ERC721. It additionally supplies prompt withdrawal with pay-in-advance options and compliance compatibility utilizing spending key and viewing keys. ZKOPRU has just lately launched on testnet – go forward and test it out. We’re engaged on bettering sync-times and on a personal trade characteristic.

Unirep & Unirep Social

UniRep is a personal and non-repudiable repute system. Customers can obtain optimistic and destructive repute from attesters, and voluntarily show that they’ve at the least a certain quantity of repute with out revealing the precise quantity. Furthermore, customers can not refuse to obtain repute from an attester. We’re utilizing Unirep to construct Unirep Social: a Reddit-like platform that enables customers to privately accumulate karma. Constructing the Unirep Social web site was our focus up to now months. Proofs in Unirep are actually listed in order that they are often referred many instances and forestall one proof from being submitted twice. Unirep can now deal with an preliminary repute airdrop and consumer state transition airdrop. We’re additionally bettering the effectivity in producing consumer state and Unirep state.

Fundamental capabilities, frontend design, frontend and backend of Unirep Social are full, and we’re planning a closed pre-alpha launch. Take a look at this blogpost if you wish to be taught extra.

CLR.fund for Everybody

The purpose of the challenge is to make it simple for any group to run their very own CLR spherical with clr.fund. This challenge has been very busy. Now you can deploy your individual quadratic funding software with the clr.fund Deployer. Empower your group to decide on and fund its personal future, in a completely decentralized method. Take a look at our Subgraph and Documentation.


Repute is the important thing to belief. Folks spend years build up their repute on centralized social platforms, however they’ve to begin from nothing every time they begin utilizing a brand new app. InterRep goals to make repute transportable to develop the compounding advantages of trusted human interactions throughout the net. Take a look at this blogpost for the preliminary announcement and the repo. Previously quarter we now have expanded the vary of social proof sources, to POAP and electronic mail and have curated teams: on-chain, and off-chain through a Telegram bot. We’re doing a UI redesign, bettering interplay with consumer functions and making ready for a stay launch.

Semaphore / ZK-Keeper

Semaphore is a zero-knowledge gadget which permits customers to show their membership of a set with out revealing their unique id. On the identical time, it permits customers to sign their endorsement of an arbitrary string. It’s designed to be a easy and generic privateness layer for Ethereum dApps. Use circumstances embody personal voting, whistleblowing, mixers, and nameless authentication. With ZK-Keeper we’re focussing on preserving Semaphore updated with the newest zk instruments and integrating it with different tasks like InterRep. We now have new libs for dealing with semaphore proofs and identities. Implementation is now performed on prime of Halo2 and we’re getting it prepared for use within the browser.


RLN (Charge Limiting Nullifier) is a assemble primarily based on zero-knowledge proofs that allows spam prevention for decentralized, nameless environments. In nameless environments, the id of the entities is unknown. We now have just lately printed an explanatory weblog publish to get extra folks excited in regards to the thought. We now have completed analysis round “Feasibility evaluation for ETH2 Validator privateness utilizing RLN”. We’re engaged on productionalizing the “Personal prompt chat app utilizing RLN and Interrep” challenge. We’re additionally serving to to combine the ZK-Keeper plugin into the RLN tasks.

Protocol Assist

Authored by Tim Beiko

The Protocol Assist (PS) group was shaped in 2021 to develop the variety of methods wherein the groups constructing or interacting with the Ethereum base layer are supported. The group’s foremost focus is enabling core builders to ship community upgrades on Ethereum’s execution layer.

To this impact, Berlin, London and Arrow Glacier have been deployed this yr. Past these, PS spent vital efforts working in the direction of The Merge, first with Rayonism, then the Amphora workshop and now the Kintsugi Devnet!

This accelerating tempo and scope of change has required extra outreach to the Ethereum group, which led our group to prepare frequent Group Calls. Throughout these, software, infrastructure and tooling builders have been invited to debate the best way to finest help protocol upgrades and supply a clean transition for his or her customers. Alongside these calls, the group has given a number of talks and printed a number of posts in regards to the altering Ethereum roadmap, similar to this current all core devs replace, this piece in Bankless and this current publish on the Merge and the applying layer within the EF Weblog.

Past protocol upgrades, the PS group has taken on two main initiatives to make sure purchasers groups are nicely supported. First, a Consumer Incentive Program was introduced to provide groups Ethereum-aligned long-term incentives. This system supplies consumer groups with a set of 144 validators that they have to run utilizing their software program. Assuming groups hold assembly sure efficiency benchmarks on mainnet, these validators are regularly vested to the groups, that are free to both liquidate them or hold them operating to gather rewards and charges. This program aligns groups with Ethereum, ensures they’re “dogfooding” their purchasers on mainnet, and that they hold delivering performant software program.

Second, a Core Developer Apprenticeship Program was launched. This program supplied stipends and mentorship to self-directed people who needed to dive deep into protocol growth. CDAP was launched as an experiment which proved to be extremely profitable! Two cohorts have been run, with over 25 individuals. Of those, at the least 5 are actually working full time within the ecosystem. These preliminary cohorts have taught us loads about what was good and what may very well be improved with this system. Anticipate a revamped CDAP in 2022!

Lastly, the group experimented with offering infrastructure to the consumer groups and broader group. To that finish, crawler.ethereum.org was shipped and open-sourced. We hope that having an extra crawler operating and accessible for the group to enhance, modify or fork helps present higher views of the community’s topology.


Authored by Rob Stupay

Over the previous 6 months, the Remix group has unscrewed the again of our app to do some intensive rewiring. First amongst these adjustments was continued work on shifting our code to React. We additionally expanded our attain by dialing in some efficient channels to new communities, and onboarding new customers with a fundamental product “tour” of our IDE. We’ve plugged in tasks into our “expertise”, integrating Slither, and Hardhat, in addition to updating the Remix VSCode extension.

And, if that’s not sufficient, we jammed on some instruments for collaborative coding, bettering Decentralized GIT and integrating Github. Final however not least, we’ve up to date our current plugins. Briefly, we’ve maxed it out to 11.

See extra particulars in our article.

Strong Incentives Group

Authored by Barnabe Monnot

The RIG (Strong Incentives Group) welcomed new group members and took part in lots of vital milestones for the Ethereum protocol. For a fast refresher on what the RIG is and what we care about, you’ll be able to try Protocol cryptoeconomics with the RIG, introduced by Barnabé at EthCC in July.

On the Proof-of-Stake consensus facet, Caspar, who joined us as full-time analysis scientist earlier this yr, discovered a problem with the present fork alternative, written up as Three assaults on Proof-of-Stake Ethereum. Thankfully, there’s a robust candidate repair that was just lately merged within the consensus specs, after many productive discussions with Stanford’s Tse Lab, who co-authored the “Three assaults” paper. Caspar and others additionally proposed a unique mitigation (“proposer view merge”), that’s nonetheless underneath analysis. Take a look at Caspar at Liscon presenting his outcomes!

Shyam, who joined us first as analysis intern final summer time and is now a analysis assistant on the RIG, launched a collection of notebooks exploring the beacon chain statistics from many distinctive angles, together with oceanic video games and inequality. Shyam has additionally been engaged on an extension to our Beacon runner PoS simulation engine that features reinforcement studying. Take a look at his discuss at EDCON!

Block 12,965,000, August fifth, 12:33:42 PM UTC, was an vital date for us: the London onerous fork activated, and with it, EIP-1559. Over the past yr, we’ve launched a collection of notebooks presenting numerous simulations of the brand new price market mechanism, which set the stage for additional evaluation after launch. Barnabé reported some outcomes early after, and with co-authors (together with Shyam) wrote up a longer-form paper, Transaction Charges on a Honeymoon: Ethereum’s EIP-1559 One Month Later. The paper is motivated by the behaviour of the 1559 replace rule in the true world, and opens new analysis instructions for enhancements to the rule.

The RIG was additionally intently working with the cadCAD Edu group in making ready an internet masterclass in validator economics, supported by a completely extensible mannequin of Ethereum economics (in Python).

Snake Charmers [Python Ecosystem]

Authored by Keri Clowes

Within the second half of 2021, the Snake Charmers group accomplished the adjustments wanted throughout the ecosystem to help the London onerous fork. This concerned wide-ranging, elementary adjustments all through our stack, particularly in Py-EVM, Ethereum Tester, Web3.py, and eth-account. There have been additionally two bug bounties submitted for Py-EVM which have been mounted. We’ve ramped up efforts to generate academic content material, and positioned a much bigger emphasis on developer relations. And as all the time, there may be ongoing group help, problem triage, and bug squashing throughout our Python instruments.


Authored by Grant Wuerker

Over the previous 6 months, the Fe group has lower the next releases:

0.11.0-alpha “Karlite” (2021-12-02)

  • multi-file help
  • perform definitions on structs

v0.10.0-alpha “Jade” (2021-10-32)

  • module-level constants and capabilities
  • unsafe help

v0.9.0-alpha “Iridium” (2021-9-29)

  • self declarations in perform signatures

v0.8.0-alpha “Haxonite” (2021-8-31)

  • query-based evaluation utilizing Salsa

0.7.0-alpha “Galaxite” (2021-07-27)

  • Solidity ABI decoding checks

0.6.0-alpha “Feldspar” (2021-06-10)

If you need to know extra about our progress over the past 6 months, you’ll be able to checkout the next assets:


Authored by Piper Merriam

This yr has been a giant yr for the Portal Community. We began this yr with an thought and solely a free plan for the best way to construct a peer-to-peer community that would ship light-weight entry to the Ethereum protocol. We now have three impartial groups and implementations and are nicely underway to launching the preliminary testnet which ought to evolve into a completely practical community by the top of 2022.

The EF Portal group has been working onerous on Trin, a portal consumer written in Rust. The EF Javascript group has additionally been engaged on Ultralight, a portal consumer written in Typescript aimed toward being runnable within the browser. The group from Standing.im has additionally been engaged on Fluffy, a portal consumer meant for integration with the Standing ethereum consumer and pockets options.

Throughout this yr we now have solved the beforehand unsolved downside of the best way to distribute the present Ethereum State in a way that’s conducive to environment friendly storage and retrieval. We established the Portal Wire Protocol, an extensible base protocol that’s the basis of all the networks making up the Portal Community. We additionally had the pleasure of working with a number of individuals of the Core Developer Apprenticeship Program who used the Portal Community tasks as a leaping off level for stepping into Core Protocol growth.

Safety [Security / Consensus Tests]

Authored by Safety (Safety / Consensus Exams) Crew

On the safety and testing facet, numerous consideration has been given to the London improve and the upcoming merge. We’ve made updates on tooling for check authoring and continued to enhance the reference checks.


Authored by Franziska Heintel

Within the second half of this yr, we launched Solidity variations 0.8.8, 0.8.9, 0.8.10 and 0.8.11:

  • Solidity 0.8.8 brings you consumer outlined worth varieties as a serious new characteristic. It additionally improves overriding interface capabilities, studying from immutables, and extra.
  • Solidity 0.8.9 is a pure bugfix launch and fixes two vital, however low severity, bugs:
  • Solidity 0.8.10 incorporates exterior perform name optimizations, allows the brand new EVM code generator for pure Yul mode and might report contract invariants and reentrancy properties via the SMTChecker.
  • Solidity 0.8.11 provides a primary implementation of a Language Server and permits a safer approach to carry out ABI-encoding.

Furthermore, a number of Solidity group members introduced at ETHGlobal’s Developer Device Summit:

The Solidity documentation received just a few upgrades, most notably, we…

  • up to date the assets part with basic assets, Ethereum IDEs, editor integrations, Solidity instruments, Solidity parsers and grammars.
  • added the performance to open code examples within the documentation immediately in Remix.

Lastly, we launched our yearly Solidity Developer Survey. In case you are a Solidity developer, please take 10 minutes to share your suggestions and participate within the survey right here. The survey can be open till thirty first of December 2021.

Oh and we’re hiring! Take a look at our C++ Engineer Solidity opening.


Authored by Thibaut Schaeffer

Within the second half of 2021, ZoKrates superior on totally different fronts:


  • Sort aliasing, in addition to the flexibility to make perform calls in fixed definitions
  • Assist for the ternary expression syntax
  • Allow fixed generics on structs

Proof programs

  • Discount of the deployment price for some Solidity verifiers
  • Expose recursive verification in the usual library
  • Add help for Groth16 MPC ceremonies (coming quickly)

Compiler efficiency

  • Intensive work on decreasing reminiscence and time necessities of the compiler (coming quickly with metrics!)

For a full listing of the adjustments, try the changelog



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